Shoulder is comprised of three bones i.e. clavicle, scapula and humerus and most movable joint. The ball of the upper arm is larger than the socket of the shoulder and it has variety of motions that is why this joint is very unstable. It is surrounded by muscles, ligaments and tendons. It is prone to instability so is the place for injuries.
Cause of shoulder injuries are acute trauma or repetitive motion of shoulder.
- Trauma includes: sudden pull in weight lifting, violent overhead reach, direct blow to the shoulder, falling on an outstretched arm.
- Injury due to repetitive motions are often experienced by athletes and often involves partial or complete dislocation of shoulder.
Symptoms and treatments and different shoulder injuries
The shoulder ball moves out of socket due to the extreme rotation. Usually it happens due to backward movement of arm and frequent dislocation is called shoulder instability. It causes pain and intensity of pain is increased due to swelling, numbness and bruising. Along with the dislocation, there may be ligament or tendon damage and rarely nerve damage can also occur. It is diagnosed by physical check up as well as X-ray.
Dislocation is treated by manipulation and reduction therapy in which doctors put the head of humerus back into the shoulder socket. Rest is recommended to heal it up along with application of ice 3-4 times daily. After cure, patient is recommended for physiotherapy. Dislocations are also treated by arthroscopic surgery.
It happens due to partial or complete tearing of ligaments which support the acromioclavicular (AC) joint. Symptoms include shoulder pain or tenderness and bump over the shoulder. It is also diagnosed by X-rays.
It is treated by wearing a sling and proper rest. Ice is used to reduce pain and swelling. After resting period, physiotherapy is recommended and duration of healing is 2-3 months. Sometimes surgery is needed, if this method not works.
3 Sternoclavicular separation
It is not direct shoulder problem but affect its function due to sternoclavicular rotation. It is usually diagnosed by X-rays or CT-scan and treated with NSAIDs, ice and rest. In rare cases surgery is required.
4 SLAP tear
Superior labrum anterior to posterior tears (SLAP tear) is the result of separation of the cartilage of shoulder from glenoid causing instability of shoulder.
Symptoms of SLAP tear are dull deep ache, discomfort in sleeping and weakness while performing overhead activities. It is diagnosed though clinical exam followed by MRI. Only few cases are recovered to complete mobility without surgery. Others are operated to rejoin the labrum and glenoid.
5 Adhesive Capsulitis
It is also known as swollen shoulder as movement of shoulder is badly affected and too much restricted. It often occurs due to lack of movement due to pain. It happens after the age of 40’s due to rheumatic problems and resting period of surgery.
Partial or complete crack in any of the three bones of shoulder is called shoulder fracture due to impact injury. Symptoms include sever pain, redness and bruising. It is diagnosed by X-rays.
It is treated by bringing the bones at right position followed by wearing a strap. In some cases surgery is needed.
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